In guns, internal ballistics covers the time from the propellant's ignition until the projectile exits the gun barrel. The study of internal ballistics is important to designers and users of firearms of all types, from small-bore rifles and pistols, to high-tech artillery.
Prior to the mid-1800s, before the development of electronics and the necessary mathematics, (see Euler), and material science to fully understand pressure vessel design, internal ballistics did not have a lot of detailed objective information. Barrels and actions would simply be built strong enough to survive a known overload (Proof test), and muzzle velocity change could be surmised from the distance the projectile traveled.
The paper deals with an adaptation of the standard interior ballistics model for the case of amphibious rifle shooting ammunition under water. The adapted mathematical model was validated and experimentally verified using the 5.56 mm underwater projectile shot from the 5.56 mm amphibious rifle. The dependence of the underwater interior ballistic processes on the powder mass was investigated. The results of theoretical mathematic model solution correspond very well with experiment. The described mathematical model and the dependence of the underwater interior ballistic processes on the powder mass can be a reference for designers in the design process of the underwater ammunition or underwater rifle.
Interior ballistic modelling is used in a wide range of defence applications, and forms a key analytical tool for the assessment of gun and rocket propulsion systems. A range of phenomena occurring during the interior ballistics cycle are related to solid propellant ignition processes, therefore the accurate reproduction of ignition phenomena is important. Australia's Defence Science and Technology Organisation has capability in performing gun interior ballistics modelling through its numerical code, Casbar. Casbar solves the governing equations for the transient flow of chemically reacting gas and particulates within a Finite volume discretisation of the computational domain.
A number of numerical techniques for solution of the solid-phase ignition model were reviewed. In numerical modelling it is required that the solution of the model be adequately robust, while reducing the impact on the simulation time. In all of the investigated heat Flux scenarios, the integral method was able to adequately approximate the final ignition time to within an acceptable level of accuracy (in comparison to the finite difference approximation). Situations involving highly variable heat fluxes were employed to test the applicability of the integral method. These scenarios were constructed to accentuate the variability of the heat flux, and situations like this are not expected in typical interior ballistic simulations. The integral method is therefore considered an appropriate candidate for implementation in Casbar.
Structural analysis is a critical aspect in the successful design of tube launched projectiles, such as mortar rounds. Ongoing research conducted at West Virginia University has focused on a Hybrid Projectile (HP), folding-wing UAV design inspired by mortars. This has driven the necessity of a structural analysis of the prototype design to provide vital feedback to designers to ensure that the HP is likely to survive the act of launching. Due to the extreme accelerations during the launching phase, a typical mortar round experiences dramatic impulse loads for an extremely brief duration of time. Such loads are the result of the propellant combustion process. Thermodynamic-based interior ballistic computations have been formulated and were used to solve the dynamic equations of motion that govern the system. Modern ballistic programs solve these equations by modeling the combustion of the propellant. However, mathematical procedures for such analyses require complex models to attain accurate results. Consequently, the objective of this research was to create a ballistic program that could evaluate interior ballistics by using archived pressure-time data without having to simulate the propellant combustion. A program routine created for this purpose reduces the complexity of calculations to be performed and minimizes computational effort, while maintaining a reasonable degree of accuracy for the motion dynamics results (temporal position, velocity, acceleration of the projectile). Additionally, the program routine was used to produce a mathematical model describing the pressure as a function of time, which could be used as loading conditions for more advanced explicit-dynamic finite element simulations to evaluate the transient response and stress wave propagation of the prototype and individual payload components. Such simulations remove uncertainties related to the transient loads needed to assess the structural integrity of the projectile and its components.
Interior ballistics refers to everything that happens in a firearm from the moment the striker hits to the moment the bullet leaves the barrel. For TL5-7, this involves black powder or nitrocellulose powder expanding in a firing chamber, and then accelerating a projectile down a tube. For Ultra Tech projectiles, it might involve magnetic acceleration. We can even generalize the issue by claiming that \"interior ballistics\" can be stretched to include the force a bowstring exerts on an arrow, and cover TL3-4 missile weapons as well.
In all cases, the propellant is applying a force to the projectile over a certain distance (or draw length, for the case of bows and crossbows). Simple physics states that force applied over distance equals energy. If we turn that into kinetic energy by using the equation F.x = mv2, we can determine the final velocity of the projectile, which is where interior ballistics ends, and exterior ballistics begins.
Once the projectile leaves the weapon, Sir Isaac takes over and we could calculate a trajectory. However, all of this is (usefully) abstracted into a skill roll in GURPS, which is far simpler. It is worthy of note, though, that with some knowledge of how the velocity of a projectile degrades with distance, you would not have to employ the mechanic of the Damage range . . . you would simply solve for the projectile velocity at the target range, recalculate damage based on the final velocity, and roll some dice. That would require a computer to be used at the gaming table . . . some do it, but it's certainly not for everyone! Once the bullet arrives at its target, exterior ballistics ends.
While there is probably no more controversial subject in firearms literature than the effects that bullets have on people and animals, for gaming purposes the questions are fairly simple: how much armor can the projectile penetrate, and what does it do to the target once it gets through all that armor That's terminal ballistics, and for gaming purposes, we're going to assume that projectiles do two things. First they penetrate defenses, and then they penetrate flesh, causing a wound as they do so.
This article will deal with terminal ballistics first, proceed to ignore exterior ballistics, and then return to interior ballistics for those who just have to modify their .357 magnum to have an 18\" barrel, or design an archer who can pull a 200lb longbow.
POWDER SELECTION ManufacturerPowder type ADI AR2207AR2219B'mark2AR2206HAR2208AR2209AR2213SCAR2217AR2225 Alliant RL7RL10XAR CompRL15.5RL152000-MRRL17RL16RL19RL22RL26RL33 Chemie Swiss RS12RS20RS24RS30RS36RS40RS50RS52RS60RS62RS70RS76RS80 Hodgdon H4198 H322 Benchmark H4895 Varget H4350 H4831 H1000 Retumbo CFE-BLK H335 BL-C(2) CFE-223 H380 US869 IMR 4227 4198 3031 8208 4064 4320 4895 4350 4831 7828 Lovex S040 S053 S060 S062 S065 S070 S071 D060 D063 D073.4 D073.5 D073.6 D100 Norma 200 201 202 203B URP 204 MRP 217 Ramshot X-Terminator TAC Wild Boar Big Game Hunter Magnum LRT Somchem S321 S335 S341 S365 S385 Vectan SP3 SP10 SP9 SP7 SP11 SP12 SP13 T8000 TU3000 TU5000 TU7000 TU8000 Vihtavuori N110 N120 N130 N133 N135 N140 N150 N160 N165 N170 24N41 20N29 N530 N540 N550 N555 N560 N565 N570 N568 REQUIRED DATA Powder space*: cc grains of water Powder weight: grams grains Bullet weight: grams grains Bullet type: Copper jacketed, lead core ( moly'd) Lead Bore rider with thin drive bands Monolithic solid Calibre: 17 20 224 243 (6mm) 25 (250) 264 (6.5mm) 270 284 (7mm) 7.5mm 303 308 (7.62mm) 32 8mm 338 38 (9mm) 375 40 (10mm) 416 44 45 (450) 475 50 577 Barrel length: millimetres inches Case length: millimetres inches Pressure output: bar psi (piezo). Velocity output: metres/sec. feet/sec. Muzzle energy output: Joules. ft-lbs. WARNINGThis program does not take the place of a reloading manual published by the relevant powder company for estimating starting loads or maximum loads. What this program does This is a free, online, internal ballistics simulation program. There is no other online program like it. There are no issues with operating systems - so long as your device has a browser and can access the Internet, you can use this simulator. There are no problems with getting the latest update. As soon as the simulator or its data libraries are updated, those updates are available next time you use this simulator.Given the various inputs listed above, the program simulates the evolution of the gas pressure and the velocity of the bullet as it travels up the barrel. This program is a numerical simulation. It makes no prior assumptions about pressure rise or any other variable. It just runs the basic physics of what happens next as the virtual charge of powder burns. A summary of the results are given. Graphs are plotted for pressure -vs- time, pressure -vs- distance along the barrel, and bullet velocity -vs- distance along the barrel.
Interior ballistics is a term describing the process from the firing of the primer to the moment when the bullet leaves the barrel. It is extremely important to have the ignition and burning of the powder uniform from shot to shot. Consequently, we combine the right primer with the right powder in every load. By doing this, we keep the pressure at given limits and achieve best accuracy and velocity as well as reduced recoil. 59ce067264